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Specific Types of Learning Disabilities

Reading Difficulty (Dyslexia): 

  • Dyslexia, normal or above normal intelligence, any sensory, physical, mental difficulties; It is a difficulty that causes inadequacy in one or more of the areas of reading, writing, mathematics, self-expression, thinking, orienting in time and space.

  • In addition to the marked weakness in the left hand, the slowness of the right hand draws attention. However, as age increases and motor performance is visually supported, those with dyslexia were found to be more proficient in some motor tasks.

  • They lack perspective and may have bigger problems when painting a bike or clock.

  • They confuse the terms up-down and right-left.

  • Late onset of speech, slow development of speech and inability to gain a full expression ability, clumsiness and defects in fine motor movements, difficulty in establishing hand dominance are in question.

  • Array memory has latency (such as counting the alphabet, months, days of the week) and visual memory sorting issues.

  • It is important that high intelligence, early recognition of problems, positive personality, intensive education and training, and stimulating environment are important. Using more than one language at home can be a disadvantage. Frequent school changes are also an important negative factor.

  • Reading problems improve with age; but they always lag behind their peers.

  • Many of them are quite unsuccessful in academic terms, but in the future, with special education, the ability to read correctly improves considerably.

Arithmetic Difficulty (Dyscalculia):

  • Dyscalculia is the name given to the deficiencies in comprehending and calculating numerical relations, recognizing, using and writing numerical symbols visually and mentally due to an acquired or developmental cerebral pathology.

  • Children with dyscalculia write numbers incorrectly, often displaced, turned upside down or upside down.

  • They cannot perform simple operations, they do not recognize arithmetic symbols, especially operation symbols.

  • They may have difficulty reading multi-digit numbers, and they cannot put the numbers together at appropriate intervals in operations such as multiplication and division.

  • Two main types of arithmetic difficulties can be observed in children. The first is in the realm of computation, and the second is in the area of reasoning.

  • Calculation involves reversing numbers, reversing the order of numbers, executing operations in an irregular order, and doing operations incorrectly.

  • They can skip numbers and cannot checksums.

  • There may be a problem with reading comprehension in the area of reasoning; verbal problem solving, understanding commands, and keeping the problem in mind and solving it step by step according to a plan.

  • They may have problems in perceptual, visual or spatial recall, and accordingly, difficulties may be experienced in geometric operations. In general, children with dyscalculia may have problems in other areas of learning disability.

Written Expression Difficulty (Dysgraphia)

  • Dysgraphia is a specific learning disability that affects how quickly children acquire written language and how well they can use written language to express their thoughts.

  • In dysgraphia, the mechanics of writing are disrupted; It can often be seen in the form of holding a wrong pencil and creating wrong letters.

  • Differential diagnosis includes attention problems such as short attention span and distraction, psychiatric problems such as inability to give oneself enough, school phobia and role playing. There are various forms of dysgraphia in children.

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